#11 - Introduction to Operating Systems | #Unit_05 #Grade_10 #Tamil


Introduction to Operating Systems

A Computer consists of hardware, firmware and software. Any physical component of a computer system with a definite shape is called a hardware. Examples of hardware include: mouse, keyboard, display unit, hard disk, speaker, printer etc. The booting instructions stored in the ROM (Read Only Memory) are called firmware. The initial text information displayed on the screen are displayed by firmware.

How the initial operations of a computer are performed

  • When the user powers up the computer the CPU (Central Processing Unit) activates the BIOS (Basic Input Output System).
  • The first program activated is POST (Power On Self-Test). Using the CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) memory this checks all the hardware and confirms that all are functioning properly.
  • After that it reads the MBR (Master Boot Record) in boot drive in accordance with the firmware ‘bootstrap loader’ which is provided by the computer manufacturer.
  • Then the computer loads in the Operating System in boot drive to the RAM (Random Access Memory)
  • Once this is performed the Operating System takes over the control of the computer and displays a user interface to the user.

This whole process is called booting which means that an Operating System is loaded into the RAM (main memory).

Software is a set of instructions given to the computer to perform some activity using a computer. There are many types of software. They can be broadly classified as follows:
System Software

Operating System
The Operating System provides for the user to utilize the functions of a computer by managing the hardware and software in it. The image 5.2 below depicts how the system software and application software interact with the hardware. 

Utility Software

These are used to manage and analyze the software in the computer. The utility software differ from the application software in their complexity and operational activities. Utility software helps in managing the resources of the computer. However, the application software function in different to the utility software. There are many utility software which dedicated to perform certain functions. Some of them are mentioned below
  • Anti -Virus Software
  • Disk Formatting
  • Games
  • Player
Language Translators

A computer program (software) is made up by using a set of instruction codes. These instructions are written in high level languages which are very close to the human languages. These high level languages are translated into machine language (i.e 0’s and 1’s) which are understood by the computer by language translators. assembler, compiler and interpreter are examples for language translators.

Application Software

The application software which runs on the Operating System is used to carry out computer based activities of the user such as creating documents, mathematical functions, data entry and, computer games.
  • MS Word
  • Fir Fox
  • Far Cry 5 Game 
  • Photoshop
  • VLC Player
  • Notepad++

#11 - Introduction to Operating Systems | #Unit_05 #Grade_10 #Tamil



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Hello, I’m Ramzan Graphics Designer and WEB Developer from Mutur, Trincomalee Sri Lanka.I am owner of Ram Soft Tm. I hold a Pearson BTEC HND in Computing from ESOFT Metro Campus.
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{picture#https://ramsofttm.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Ramzan-Lanka-480x480.jpg} Hello, I’m Ramzan Graphics Designer and WEB Developer from Mutur, Trincomalee Sri Lanka.I am owner of Ram Soft Tm . I hold a master degree of Graphic Design and WEB Developer {facebook#https://www.facebook.com/ramzanlankaa} {twitter#https://www.facebook.com/ramzanlankaa} {google#https://www.facebook.com/ramzanlankaa} {pinterest#https://www.facebook.com/ramzanlankaa} {youtube#https://www.facebook.com/ramzanlankaa} {instagram#https://www.facebook.com/ramzanlankaa}

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